Components in Electric Cars and How Electric Cars Work

EV is the abbreviation for electric vehicles, which are environmentally friendly and are a great satisfaction when it comes to owning and driving them. An electric car does not need much maintenance because it consists of fewer moving parts than a conventional fuel-powered vehicle.

EV cars possess no clutches or gears, they can speed up fast and smooth, so it feels as if you are sitting in a sports car. Since no petrol or diesel is being used, they can be really inexpensive to use.

One of the best things about electric vehicles is that they can be kept charging at home while you are soundly sleeping in your room.

The noiseless and smell less engine of your electric vehicle lets you enjoy the music and songs while driving as well as the beautiful scenery as you speed away on the highway.

How do electric cars work?

There is a vast difference between the working mechanics and components in electric cars from internal combustion engines. The maintenance and operation methods of the two are far diversified from each other.

The world is switching to more and more use of electric vehicles as a pollution-free, fuel-efficient, clean, and green mode of transport. Running on electricity means they don’t emit anything toxic or environmentally detrimental from their exhaust.

Electric Car Components
Electric Car Components

There is every reason to acquire as much information and knowledge about how they work. The basic principle it uses is the simple conversion of energy, turning electrical energy into mechanical energy.

This is done by a motor that utilizes the electricity stored in its batteries for the conversion and hence generates the power that is imperative for driving and other car functions like wipers and lights.

Read 15 Facts You Didn’t Know About Electric Cars

Kinds of Electric Cars

All-electric vehicles don’t work in similar ways. The main few types of electric vehicles are the following;

‘Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) are cars that run entirely on electricity produced completely from batteries. They have no components that are powered by any type of internal combustion.

‘Plug-in hybrids’ have both gas or diesel-powered engine with an electric motor too. These types of cars can work in two different modes; A hybrid mode where the car uses both its electric motors and its internal combustion engine to function.

The second mode is the electric-only mode, where the vehicle is powered completely by the car’s batteries.

‘Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) have both a gas tank and electric motors. Both fuel and electricity run their transmission at the same time.

There is no charging port in HEVs as the batteries in these cars are charged by the rotation of the wheels, the internal combustion engine, or both.

‘Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles’ are cars that generate the electricity needed to operate the vehicle entirely on its own using their fuel cell technology. These cars don’t have to charge ports as they produce their own electricity.

Check out, Electric Car or Gas Car: Which is a Better Option?

Components in electric cars


The battery in an electric vehicle performs the same function as the petrol tank in an Internal Combustion Engine. The battery capacity determines the distance driven by the EV; if the battery’s capacity is high, then the distance driven will also be high.

But it is not so easy to choose which battery to use because the performance of your electric car will depend upon the battery’s weight and size.

Instead of going for large and heavy batteries that take up space and lower the driving span, it is preferable to opt for a light and a small battery that can store as much electric energy as possible.

There are power stations that are specially built for the particular purpose of charging electric cars.

Components in Electric Cars
Components in Electric Cars

The most common kind of charge is through the ordinary grid electricity, but there are other significant battery technologies other than the traditional Lithium-ion Battery, which can also be used for the same purpose.

  • Lithium-ion Batteries: The most expensive of all batteries is the Lithium-ion battery. These high costs are that they are very lightweight and can provide you with longer ranges and better performance. Digital cameras and are cellphones are two devices that make use of these batteries.
  • Lead Acid batteries: Being 97% recyclable, it is one of the lowest costing and most popular battery technologies globally.
  • Nickel Metal Hydride batteries: These batteries are much more expensive than Lead Acid Batteries but give you the option of a better yield.

There is a battery management system that allows the batteries in it to work as a single unit. This is usually found inside the battery’s body.

Just as your normal fuel-powered cars show the speed you are traveling and how much gas you have left in your tank, the same can be seen in your electric vehicle’s dashboard, which shows the battery’s remaining life and the distance you can travel.

Read Should I Buy a Used Electric Car? The Pros and Cons

Charging port

The battery charging port help converts Alternating Current (AC) electricity on our electricity grids to Direct Current (DC) power stored in the batteries on board.

Through adjustments in the charging rate, It can regulate the voltage levels of the battery packs. The charging port also aids in battery health by monitoring its temperature.

Thermal management system

The thermal management system helps the optimal operating temperature range for the engine, power electronics, electric motor, and other vehicle parts.


The motor of an electric vehicle consists of two different parts. There is the motor itself called the Electric Traction motor, and then you have the motor controller.

The Electric Traction motor uses the power generated from the batteries in moving the wheels of the vehicle. To perform both the functions of regeneration as well as driving, most vehicles use motor generators.

Talking about the motor controller of an electric vehicle, it regulates and controls the full working and supply of its power at all times.

The motor controller essentially does the job that the carburetor does in a traditional gas-powered vehicle. It is like a barrier between the batteries and the motor.

The vehicle’s battery, accelerator, motor, and operator, basically all its key performance factors, are administered, monitored, and regulated by the motor controller.

Its microprocessor assists in redirecting and limiting the current. With the help of this microprocessor, one can get more effective performance out of their vehicle.

In the automotive industry, more modern and advanced controllers are available, which enhance the efficaciousness of an electric vehicle.

Read What you need to know before buying an electric car


Multiple gears are commonly used in internal combustion engine vehicles for different speeds and power outputs.

There is no such thing required in electric vehicles as the electric motor in the vehicle itself allows the transmission to direct the mechanical energy into the car’s wheels.

Read Can an Electric Car Have a Manual Transmission?


The batteries in electric cars use Direct current (DC). But the main electric motors of the vehicle require Alternating current (AC). A device that converts DC power to the AC power that gets used in the electric vehicle motor.

The inverter also helps in increasing or decreasing the amperage to decelerate or accelerate the vehicle.

Also, read Are electric cars eco-friendly?

Final thoughts

Electric cars are the future, and they are here to stay. Their popularity is increasing day by day with the considerable number of benefits that they offer.

Big automotive names such as Nissan, BMW, Ford, and Mercedes are a few companies committed to reducing their carbon footprint by almost completely moving into the manufacture and production of emission-free, fuel-efficient electric cars.

We hope the detailed information provided above will give you insight into all the knowledge you need to understand about not only the key components used in electric cars, But it will also go a long way in helping you to understand how they function.

Since different electric cars work in different ways, it is always recommended to have a market survey about all the available choices in your area.

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